Report on the Sixteenth International Psycho-analytical Congress. International Psycho-Analytical Congress, Zurich. (1949).
This is a report on the sixteenth International Psycho-Analytical Congress held in Zurich from August 15 - 19, 1949. Some notable attendees included Dr. Ernest Jones, Mme. Marie Bonaparte, Miss Anna Freud, Dr. Philipp Sarasin, and Dr. Pfister. 385 people attended the conference in total, and the report is a detailed recount of the proceedings.
Brecht, K., V. Friedrich, et al. (1985). "Life goes on here in a most peculiar way...": History of Psychoanalysis in Germany. Exhibition 34th IPAC, Hamburg, Boston Psychoanalytic Institute.
This manuscript outlines the history of psychoanalysis in Germany starting with Karl Abraham in the early 1900s and continuing through the Nazi era.
Chasseguet-Smirgel, J. (1990). "Reflections of a Psychoanalyst upon the Nazi Biocracy and Genocide." International Review of Psycho-Analysis 17: 167 - 176.
"The author considers that it is not only a right for a psychoanalyst to attempt to understand a phenomenon such as genocide but that it is a duty, even if the hypotheses leave a dark area, as is the case with the 'navel of the dream' which is unfathomable according to Freud. She applies her conception of 'the archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex' to the study of racist ideology. The wish of the subject to merge with the mother and the eradication of all obstacles betwee nhim and her are central to the theory of Blut und Boden. She finds illustrations in her clinical experience, as well as in Hitler's and Walther Darre's writings. Certain historical conditions give this fantasy an a'symbolic and concrete shape. The biological dimension is what specifies Nazi ideology compared with all kinds of fascism. The suual explanations - particularly the economic ones - do not reach the essence of the phenomenon."
Clemmens, E. R. (1992). "German Voices about the Nazi Terror: Late Opponents and Postwar Critics." Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 20(3): 423 - 434.
The author discusses several books published in the 1970s and 1980s by German writers, addressing the silence of the nation and generations about the Holocaust. Some historical background is given, revealing that many German youth were unaware of the extent of the Holocaust and the true history of the Third Reich. The author then critiques these German publications, arguing that those addressing the nation's guilt should be condoned over those creating cynicism.
Danieli, Y. (1984). "Psychotherapists' Participation in the Conspiracy of Silence About the Holocaust." Psychoanalytic Psychology 1(1): 23 - 42.
This study seeks to expose the countertransference themes that occur when psychoanalysts work with Holocaust survivors or their children. Many of these patients have complained of the avoidance by analysts concerning their Holocaust past. By understanding countertransference, the author hopes to address why analysts would neglect to address their patients' traumatic experiences. 61 psychotherapists were interviewed for this study, and a review of the most common countertransference themes
is presented: bystander's guilt, rage, dread and horror, shame, grief and mourning, victim versus liberator, survivor as a hero, me too feelings, sense of bond, murder versus death, privileged voyeurism, and defense. Some concluding remarks and offered as well as ideas for training psychoanalysts to address the Holocaust constructively.
Eickhoff, F.-W. (1986). "Identification and its Vicissitudes in the Context of the Nazi Phenomenon." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 67: 33 - 44.
The author believes that the only adequate description of the Nazis is delusional anti-Semitism. From several case studies presented, the following vicissitudes of identifications were most prevalent: primary identification with the lost mother who retunrs in transference, existence of contrasting secondary identifications in the ego and superego, and a self-curative identification with figures in world literature and culture, which is comparable to the struggle for attainment.
Feiner, A. H. (1985). "Psychoanalysis During the Nazi Regime." Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 13(4): 537 - 545.
This article examines the existence of psychoanalysts under the Nazis. While only a few hundred psychoanalysts could have existed in Germany during the Nazi era, the author seeks to explain where they were trained and how they accomodated to Nazi theology. He addresses the operations of the Goering Institute and several facets of survival.
Friedman, P. (1949). "Some Aspects of Concentration Camp Psychology." American Journal of Psychiatry 105: 601 - 605.

Friedrich, V. (1989). "From Psychoanalysis to the "Great Treatment": Psychoanalysts under National Socialism." Political Psychology 10(1): 3 - 26.
Considering the history and integration of the Berlin Psychoanalytical Institute under National Socialist Germany, this author argues that even psychoanalysis can be compromised during political turmoil because the analysts went against Freud's call for a 'pure and untendentious psychoanalysis'. The analysts who remained in Germany during the Nazi era were convinced that psychoanalysis could continue as a pure medical science, which was not the case. The lessons from the history of psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany is then applied to contemporary issues in the nuclear era.
Gifford, S. (1999). The Rediscovery of Walter Langer, 1899 - 1981. Colloquium on the History of Psychiatry. Countway Medical Library, Harvard Medical School.
This paper serves as a short biography on Walter Langer, a non-medical analyst who was trained in Vienna from 1936-38. During his time in Vienna, Langer helped Jewish and politically radical colleaugues escape the Nazis. The author, Sanford Gifford, personally corresponded with Langer and other foreign analytical students who were also secretly helping these rescue operations. From a series of letters and phone calls, Gifford reflects on the importance of Langer's contributions to the analytical field in America and his activities in Vienna.
Hassenfeld, I. N. (2002). "Doctor-Patient Relations in Nazi Germany and the Fate of Psychiatric Patients." Psychiatric Quarterly 73(3): 183 -194.
"German physicians actively engaged in the forced sterilization and killing of psychiatrically disabled children and adult patients. Academic psychiatrists embraced the Nazi philosophy and led the way in the "final solution" for psychiatric patients. This took place in a climate of widespread racism, virulent anti-Semitism, disillusionment with utopian social reforms, loss of medical confidentiality, devaluation of autonomy, intoxication with collectivism, injust national pride, and economic crisis. In this paper I review the impact on the physician-patient relationship of scientific, socio-economic, and political developments in the fifty years leading up to Hitler's rise to power, and explore potential implications for health care in the U.S."
Kijak, M. (1989). "Further Discussions of Reactions of Psychoanalysts to the Nazi Persecution, and Lessons to be Learnt." International Review of Psycho-Analysis 16: 213 - 222.
"THe german genocide of the Jews shows unique traits that make it different from any other genocide. The paper briefly describes these characteristics of the Holocaust which make it qualitatively as well as quantitatively different. The topic was almost totally avoided at the Hamburg Congress for various reasons, associated with resistance. This paper was written in response to the Moses' proposal that we look for answers to the questions: What is it in human beings that leads to such destructive behaviour? What can be done to prevent a repetition? The author suggests that some of the interpretations offered by psychanalysts need to be reformulated since many are based on premisses that can not be applied to gruop phenomena and/or are based on biased accounts. A systematic investigation of the subject is imperative as, though Nazism has disappeared as a mass movement, it has left an action model that governments and authoritarian groups may use for their own ends. Such a study will have to be an interdisciplinary one."
Kitahara, M. (1988). "The Nazi Concentration Camp and Occupied Japan: Responses in Two Historical Situations." Journal of Psychohistory 16(2): 191 - 204.
"The purpose of this paper is to suggest that a large number of individuals are prone to identify with the aggressor collectively after they have been forced to regress to a child-like condition of thought and behavior, and that this may take place more easily when they are culturally encouraged to regress. This hypothesis is based on a comparison of two very different events in history: the concentration camps in Nazi Germany and the occupation of Japan after World War II."
Klein, H. and I. Kogan (1986). "Identification Processes and Denial in the Shadow of Nazism." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 67: 45 - 52.
This paper seeks to analyze identification and denial processes during the Holocaust and afterwards. Identification processes are studied from two points of view concerning the process of mourning and the inability to mourn. Denial is viewed as a defense mechanism for massive trauma, and identification processes including idealized lost objects, fantasies, words, and acts are associated with the mourning process, which helps recreate a sense of self. Some problems with Holocaust survivors, such as
adoivance of mourning and reemergence of superego are discussed, with a focus on the 'Mythos of Survival' as a special way of coping with life and death situations.
Kurzweil, E. (2001). "Psychiatry, Psychotherapies and Psychology in the Third Reich." Psychoanalytic Review 88(2): 245 - 274.
While several doctors were tried and convicted at the Nuremberg trials, many more professionals were directly or indirectly involved inthe medical crimes under the Nazis, either by continuing research or being bystanders. This article addresses the wartime role of psychologists and psychotherapy, the subsequent silence in the general German population, and the current status of the field of psychology in Germany many years after the Holocaust.
Langer, W. C. and S. Gifford (1978). "An American Analyst in Vienna During the Anschluss, 1936 - 1938." Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences 14: 37 - 54.
"Two letters of Dr. Walter C. Langer give an animated, informal pictures of (1) his experiences as a young American psychologist in training at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute during its last years before the NAzi occupation, (2) the clandestine activities of Dr. LAnger and other foreign students in helping Austrian friends and colleagues to escape after the Anschluss in March 1938, and (3) his recollections of earlier years as a clinical psychologist, child analyst, and director of a residential school for disturbed boyds. Dr. Langer's experiences are presented and discussed in relation to an important early phase in the development of American psychoanalysis, when full training could only be obtained in European institutes. His position as an analyst, a nonphysician, on returning to this country, where the American tradition of "medical orthodoxy" prevailed, prompts some reflections on the past and present status of lay analysis."
Lothane, Z. (1999). "The Deal with the Devil to "Save" Psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany." Psychoanalytic Review 27(3): 101 - 121.
This article reviews and critiques several psychoanalytic publications on the Nazi era in Germany. A short biography of Freud's life especially during this era is given, and then the author reviews several important publications, including authors Geoffrey Cocks, Heinz Hartmann, Harald Shcultz-Hencke, and Reich.
Mack, J. E. (1989). "Discussion: Psychoanalysis in Germany 1933 - 1945 - Are There Lessons for the Nuclear Age?" Political Psychology 10(1): 53 - 61.
This article is a discussion of the proceedings at a symposium that addressed the admission of German psychoanalysts into the IPA despite their involvement with the Nazis, the risks of professionals speaking against state policies, moral responsilbity at the individual level, and ways to resist socialization to genocide. The smyposium questioned the ISPP as an organization, due to its political activism, and sought to uncover certain tendencies that could lead to genocide in order to avoid them in the future.
Mack, J. E. (1989). "Psychoanalysis in Germany 1933 - 1945 - Are There Lessons for the Nuclear Age?" Political Psychology 10(1): 1 - 26.
"The consideration of the history of psychoanalysis in National Socialist Germany has set in motion a difficult process of remembering and working through. New facts have been made available concerning the analysts who remained in Germany and the integration of the Berlin Psychanalytial Institute into the Nazi System. They were convinced that psychanalysis could be practiced as a pure medical science even under National Socialism. They knew very well of the risk inherend in trying to preserve psychoanalysis in its pure form by relying only on themselves. As a result of their attempt to save their practice and institutions, the Institute and the "science" of psychanalysis became a shell and a fetish for whose maintenance a high price had to be paid. The present controversy among psychoanalysts about psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany makes it clear that even psychanalysis could be coopted in politically troubled times because the analysts had betrayed Freud's demand for a "pure and untendentious psychoanalysis." Even if the critical science of psychanalysis could have functioned as a psychotherapeutic method in any form of society, the lessons of psychoanalysis under National Socialism illustrate the difficult situation as well as the opportunities available to the critical scientist in the contemporary context of the nuclear threat to mankind which emerged in the aftermath of the destruction of the Nazi system."
Moller, D. W. (1996). The Death of Humans by Humans, Part Two: The Holocaust and the Technology of Genocide. Confronting Death: Values, Institutions, and Human Mortality. New York, Oxford University Press: 206 - 235.
“This chapter will explore violent deaths of genocide by focusing on the Nazi slaughter of European Jews. This is not done to link genocide exclusively with Hitler, but because the crimes of the Nazi holocaust are the most vicious, savage, and incomprehensible violations of humanity ever committed. Additionally, the magnitude of the Nazi atrocities was facilitated by characteristics that typify the organization of modern societies: mass coordination, technological dominance, mechanization, and bureaucratization. In this way, the holocaust is emphasized not to identify genocide solely with the Nazis, but to consider how the social structure of modern technological society is conducive to genocide.”
Moses, R. and R. Hrushovski-Moses (1986). "A Form of Group Denial at the Hamburg Congress." International Review of Psycho-Analysis 13: 175 - 180.
"The Congress in Hamburg represented a first official meeting of psychoanalysts of the world in Germany after the Holocaust and after World War II. German analysts willynilly represented, for themselves and for others, the Germany which had produced the Nazi era. The organization of this emotionally laden Congress neither encouraged nor allowed for a direct experiencing of the feelings aroused. the 'padding' of the theme, euphemistically called the 'Nazi phenomenon' was a major sign of the concern that untoward feelings might erupt. However, these feelings could thus not be directed into a constructive channel through addressing the issue directly and openly. By avoiding such an eruption, we failed to deal with the questions: What, in human beings, helped bring about the holocaust? and: What can be done to prevent a repetition? Perhaps it is not too late to try to continue the quest for what was missed."
Murray, H. A. (1943). Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler, Office of Strategic Services.
"The aim of this memorandum is (1) to present an analysis of Adolf Hiter's personality with an hypothetical formulation of the manner of its development; 92) on the basis of this, to make a few predictions as to his conduct when confronted by the mounting successes of the Allies; and (3) to offer some suggestions as to how the U.S. Government might now influence his mental condition and behavior (assuming it sees fit to do so), and might deal with his, if taken into custody, after Germany's surrender."
Nedelmann, C. (1989). "Psychoanalysis in Germany 1933 - 1945 and Challenges for the Nuclear Age." Political Psychology 10(1): 27 - 37.
Germans, including psychoanalysts, have struggled to come to terms with the Nazi past as part of their history. Two methods of reconciliation have been implored by German psychoanalysts: repression of the history or ineffective reconstruction. A major concern is the need to find an external source of blame to replace past enemies. In recent years, the USSR served as this new enemy. Psychoanalysts can play a crucial role in creating political awareness among the general community. They can serve as an example of enlightenment and acceptance of the past, with a new self-awareness that may lead to a more conscious society of mutual security and respect.
Ostow, M. (1986). "The Psychodynamics of Apocalyptic: Discussion of Papers on Identification anad the Nazi Phenomenon." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 67: 277 - 285.
"The classical pattern of apocalypse, comprising in its active form, an initial phase of savage destruction followed by a phase of messianic rebirth, can be reorganized in individual psychosis and in the Nazi type of destruction, persecution and virtual suicide. It can be clearly discerned also in Hitler's thinking and in the thinking of Eickhoff's Nazi-minded patient. The apocalyptic mood of Nazi society attracted this patient, for by identifying with it, she was able to overcome the isolation that her psychosis imposed upon her. The Holocaust, the other side of the Nazi apocalypse, evoked classical methods of mutual identification among the victims, but apocalyptic and messianic views became evident only after the immediate crisis had passed. The attempt to solve urgent problems by resort to apocalyptic campaigns has resulted in the murder of large numbers of Jews thought history, and of other where there were no Jews. The international psychoanalytic community can take upon itself the task of detecting and unmasking such tendencies when and where they appear, in an effort to arrest the evolution of yet another apocalypse."
Rosenfeld, D. (1986). "Identification and its Vicissitudes in Relation to the Nazi Phenomenon." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 67: 53 - 64.
"The author developed the following theoretical models: (1) autistic encapsulation, (2) loss of identifications under the effect or terror, (3) the logical-pragmatic paradox, which can be applies to other similar ones, but taking into account that is it not an exahustive mechanism to be applied in all cases. Carrying out an in-depth study of the subject, we would find two systems, one which we might define as the detachment-withdrawal model (loss) and the other, the model of autistic encapsulation. In
the encapsulation model, there is a shielding of early identifications which are later found fairls well preserved. As an explanatory model, I would suggest that there is a dialectic interplay between two systems: one aiming at encapsulating and thus shielding identifications, and another which, in spite of everything, loses valuable identifications as a consequence of terror. The inner drama develops between these two mechanisms."
Severino, S. K. (1986). "Use of a Holocaust Fantasy for the Consolidation of Identity." Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 14(2): 227 - 239.
A case study is presented in this article about a Jewish woman who has chosen a Holocaust fantasy as a means to consolidate her sense of identity. This fantasy allowed the patient to compromise certain drives while still displacing and disguising them. This woman differed from a Holocaust survivor, who actually experienced this reality, because she could use this fantasy constructively to work through intrapsychic conflicts.
Singer, L. (1998). "Ideology and Ethics. The Perversion of German Psychiatrists' Ethics by the Ideology of National Socialism." European Psychiatry 13: 87 - 92.
This paper discusses Hitler's programs for mass sterilization and the T4 killings of the mentally disabled. The methods of killing and the operations for sterilization are discussed, followed by the involvement of German academics, researchers, and doctors. Finally, the author considers the actions of the German psychiatrists and their perversion of ethics.
Spiegel, R. (1975, 1985). "Survival, Psychoanalysis and the Third Reich." Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 13(4): 521 - 536.
This article confronts the issue of the "survival" of psychoanalysis under the Third Reich, since so many professionals were driven out of Nazi Germany. The author seeks to find meaning in the irrationality of Hitler's Final Solution, to uncover the role of psychoanalysis in this society, and to learn which contemporaries theories of the time Hitler drew from and incorporated into his own psychopathology. Interviews with several German doctors are presented as evidence for the author's theories and conclusions.
Spiegel, R. (1985). "II Survival of Psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany." Contemporary Psychoanalysis 11: 479 - 491.
Considering the mass flight of intellectuals from Germany in the early 1930s, the author addresses the paradox in the field of psychotherapy under Hitler in Nazi Germany. The author begins with a short biography on Freud with reference to his involvement in protecting psychotherapists and his portrayal within Nazi Germany. A short digression on the psychoanalytic world around 1933 is also given. The history of psychotherapy through WWII in Germany and the establishment of the Goring Institute concludes this discussion.
Spiegel, R., G. Chrzanowski, et al. (1975). "On Psychanalysis in the Third Reich." Contemporary Psychoanalysis 11(4): 477 - 510.
This article is broken into four sections: Emergence of a Project, Survival of Psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany, Psychoanalysis: Ideology and Practitioners, and The Dilemma of Integrity. The authors explore the methods for the survival of psychoanalysis
in Europe during the Third Reich, the social history of practicing analysts, and the population of patients during this time period.
Staub, E. (1989). "The Evolution of Bystanders, German Psychoanalysts, and Lessons for Today." Political Psychology 10(1): 39 - 53.
"As a result of self-selection, psychoanalysts who remained in Berlin had more inclination to accept the Nazis. They accommodated with the system, began to change psychoanalytic ideas to fit Nazi ideology, passively accepted the exclusion and persecution of Jewish colleagues and those resistant to Nazism. They changed progressively, some of them joining the perpetrators. Both "internal" and "external" bystanders have great potential power to influence perpetrators and the course of events. If they act in others' behalf they themselves change, progress along a continuum of benevolence, and can develop intense committment to others' welfare."
Stromgren, E. (1994). "Recent History of European Psychiatry - Ideas, Developments, and Personalities: The Annual Eliot Slater Lecture." American Journal of Medical Genetics 54: 405 - 410.
This article, originally given at the Slater lecture in 1986, is a review of the history of European psychiatry in the 50 years of the twentieth century, spanning 1930 - 1980. The lecture is broken into three distinct historical periods: 1930 - 1945, postwar, and more recent developments. The author strives to illustrate how psychiatry can be influenced by both non-related events and by key individuals.
Wallerstein, R. S. (1988). "Psychoanalysis in Nazi Germany: Historical and Psychoanalytic Lessons." Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought 11: 351 - 370.
This article offers an overview of the proceedings and general feelings towards the 34th Congress of the Internaitonal Psychoanalytical Association which was held in Hamburg, West Germany in July 1985, the first IPA Congress in Germany since 1932. The author explains the highlights of the Congress and the impact of having this Congress in Germany.
Weindling, P. (1992). "Pscyhiatry and the Holocaust." Psychological Medicine 22: 1 - 3.
The author traces the evolution of the field of pscyhiatry from the end of nineteenth century through the 1940s. Psychiatry through the Nazi period is emphasized, with the development of sterilization laws, pscyhiatric research, and 'T4' medical killings.