Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. Washington, DC, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Alexander, L. (1945). Public Mental Health Practices in Germany: Sterilization and Execution of Patients Suffering from Nervous or Mental Disease. G.-D. Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, SHAEF. Washington, D.C.
This highly classified, "restricted" U.S. Army publication provides details of the sterilization and execution of mentally ill patients in Nazi Germany. The information, provided by German doctors, includes names, numbers, dates, locations, procedures, and relevant supplementary information obtained from "secret documents" such as private correpondance and classified government documents. Selected physicians' personal statements are also included. Much of this information is exteremely detailed, even addressing the private responses of families of those who were killed.
Andreasen, N. C. (2000). Re: Racial Hygiene, Sterilization, Euthanasia, and Genocide in Nazi German and the U.S.: From the Annals fo The American Journal of Psychiatry - SA000006. M. Grodin. Washington, D.C., The American Journal of Psychiatry.
AJP's email correspondence and editorial comments for "Racial Hygiene, Sterilization, Euthanasia, and Genocide in Nazi German and the U.S."
Bachrach, S. (2004). "In the Name of Public Health -- Nazi Racial Hygiene." New England Journal of Medicine 351(5): 417-420.
This article explores the relationship between Nazi Germany's military and public health goals and the resulting racial hygiene movement. The movement, which encouraged "healthy" German mothers to have many children and promoted a "burdensome" view of those deemed to be socially unfit, was exacerbated by the number of WWI German deaths, but also resulted in the forced sterilization of 400,000 Germans, many of whom died as a result of the surgery. After 1939, the movement began to focus more on mass killings than mass births, all of which was done in the name of public health.
Black, E. (2004). Chapter 15: Hitler's Eugenic Reich. War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race, Thunder's Mouth Press.

Black, E. (2004). Chapter 17: Auschwitz. War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race, Thunder's Mouth Press.

Busch, R. and K. Kjaer (2002). "Ectrodactyly and Germany's Eugenics Law of 14 July 1933." American Journal of Medical Genetics 110(2): 184-190.
The family reported herein serves as a genetically and historically important vignette on the issues of nonpenetrance (versus germinal mosaicism) in nonsyndromic autosomal dominant ectrodactyly and the Eugenics Law of Germany of 14 July 1933, which was used to coerce the sterilization of the propositus despite infertility in his first marriage. In a sibship of seven children (with normal parents), three boys were affected.
The propositus (adoptive grandfather of the author) was the patient of Paul Leopold Friedrich and Georg Perthes, who published their observations on the propositus. Except for an adopted daughter, the propositus was childless. His two affected brothers each had an affected child, and the father to son transmission confirmed the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance. The issue of nonpenetrance versus germinal mosaicism in ectrodactyly was debated by Auerbach [1956:Ann Hum Genet 20:266-269] and Vogel [1958:Ann Hum Genet 22:132-137], and remains unresolved. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
David, H. P., Jochen Fleischhacker, and Charlotte Hohn (1988). "Abortion and Eugenics in Nazi Germany." Population and Development Review 14(1): 81-112.
Beginning with a fairly detailed overview of abortion legislation in Germany in the decades preceding WWII and the history of sex education and contraception following WWI, this article delves into the demographic trends, eugenics, and racial hygiene characteristic of the half-century leading up to the the beginning of the Nazi era in 1933. It then provides a detailed look at how such legislation and norms were further altered during the Nazi era, culminating in a Gestapo-led antiabortion campaign which only intensified during the war years, albeit with significant deviation when it came to the identification of foreign, "racially undesirable" women. The final portion of the article looks at the comparative history of abortion and policy in surrounding countries during the same period.
Kaupen-Haas, H. (1988). "Experimental Obstetrics and National Socialism: The Conceptual Basis of Reproductive Technology Today." Reproductive and Genetic Engineering 1(2): 127-132.
This article describes how population control in Nazi Germany has influenced international research in genetic and reproductive technology. Highliting the research of Carl Clauberg in Auschwitz as representative of the research potential of Heinrich Himmler and the SS for the development of the "Institute for Research on Reproductive Biology," it explores the institutional links between the experiments in biology, "therapy," and large numbers of healthy women. Towards the end, it looks at the impact such research had on international postwar research.
Marcus, A. (1998). Mitzvah or Murder? Grappling with the issue of physician-assisted suicide. Baltimore Jewish Times. Baltimore, MD. 241; 3.
This article looks at the Michigan case of Dr. Kevorkian's infamous practice of euthanasia in context of Jewish heritage. Addressing relevant points from the Jewish religion, several Rabbis are cited in explaining the role of the practice as either a blessing or an evil. Dr. Grodin is also cited, providing his view that people like Dr. Kevorkian are "the symptom, not the solution." The viewpoints of other prominent Jewish and Catholic leaders are also provided.
Massin, B. (2000). Fwd: Re: American Journal of Psychiatry Review. J. Nathanson. Berlin, Germany, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte: 2.

Editorial comments for "Racial Hygiene, Sterilization, Euthanasia, and Genocide in Nazi German and the U.S." from Benoit Massin.

Mehler, B. (1987). "Eliminating the Inferior: American and Nazi Sterilization Programs." Science for the People: 14-18.
This article provides a comparative historical perspective on the American and Nazi sterilization programs. It traces American eugenics back it origins and through the development of the American Eugenics Society and its publication of Tomorrow's Children. While the German eugenics movement appears to be an almost perfect reflection (indeed, falling a few steps chronologically behind its American counterpart) of the American movement, for a number of reasons it took its prospects further to completion, ultimately resulting in the sterilization of hundreds of thousands of Germans, whereas the American program only had such ideas in plans that were cut short. A concluding segment on postwar eugenics discusses the actively missing public correlation between German eugenicists and mass Nazi extermination.
Meusch, M. (2001). "Hadamar: a German psychiatric treatment center in WWII " Biomolecular Engineering 17: 65-69.
This is a brief commemoration speech explaining the government-sponsored euthanasia that took place at Hadamar during the Nazi regime. IN accordance with the Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Offspring, the secret "T4" organization set about identifying and executing hundreds of thousands of children and adults deemed to be genetically unfit. Such a status was determined by specially selected doctors, and based on evaluations provided by psychiatric hospitals that included conditions like "moral feeblemindedness." Although the killings at Hadamar ended relatively abruptly in 1941, and many of the doctors and nurses involved have since then been pardoned, Hadamar remains one of the landmark sights of the Nazi eugenics program.
Muller-Hill, B. (1996). The amnesia of human geneticists. Hippocrates Betrayed - Medicine in the Third Reich. US Holocaust Memorial Museum: Washinton, D.C., New York Academy of Science: 17.
As shown by the Nuremberg Trial and significant documentation and scholarly work, there were a number of geneticists and psychiatrists heavily involved in the eugenic practices of Nazi Germany. How this fact was accepted by German and international geneticists is the main question of this paper. Interweaving the rise of social movements during the period, Toellner paints a picture of how the eugenics movement was received by the practicing physicians who became perpetrators of gross crimes. The paper concludes by asking if and how such a "descent into barbarism" might ever occur again.
Nathanson, J., and Michael A. Grodin (2000). Racial Hygiene, Sterilization, Euthanasia, and Genocide in Nazi Germany and the U.S.: From the Annals of the American Journal of Psychiatry, Boston University: 55.
"The Racial hygiene theories which led to the sterilization and extermination of the mentally and socially 'unfit' as well as to the Holocaust were developed, implemented, and managed primarily by physicians, with psychiatrists taking a a leading role. We reviewed the contents of the American Journal of Psychiatry between the years 1930 and 1948 for references to key historical events: the elimination of the Jewish presence from German medicine; the eugenic sterilization and euthanasia programs; and the
extermination of European Jewry. Our review revealed several significant findings: that the American response to persecution of German-Jewish physicians was, for the most part, characterized by complete silence; that the sterilization of the mentally ill was supported and practiced by American psychiatrists; and that the editorial board of the Journal proposed that the American Psychiatric Association strongly consider the merits of euthanasia of severely mentally disabled children. This review provides severeal important lessons regarding the practice of psychiatry in this country and brings to light disturbing similarities with Nazi medicine, especially how science and medicine can by corrupted to serve social policy rather than to promote the heath [sic] of individual patient. We conclude by discussing ways of avoiding future ethical transgression by psychiatrists."
Proctor, R. N. (2000). "Nazi Medicine and Public Health Policy." Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 10(2).
This article explores what the author deems "some of the obstacles that have hindered our effors to understand Nazi science and medicine," namely, two prominent myths--"the myth of flawed science" and "the myth of abandoned ethics." Suggesting that these myths are in fact nothing more than myths, Proctor explains the non-political nature of and ethical influence on Nazi science. By doing this, Proctor shows that the doctors committing crimes against humanity in the Holocaust were just ordinary doctors placed under extraordinary circumstances, which allows the Holocaust to provide relevant precautionary lessons for public health today.
Reuters Sterilization by US was wider than thought. Boston Globe. Boston.
This short news article reports the findings of a Yale study revealing that the US had actually sterilized over 40,000 people by 1944, with 22,000 more in the following two decades. These numbers are greater than previous estimates, partially due to the fact that, at some point, forced sterlization has been legal in 18 US states.
Riquelme, H. U. Medical Practices under Nazism: A Historical-Cultural Approach. Medical Ethics in Times of Crisis: 100-153.
This book segment, which looks at the establishment of "race science," begins by looking at the role of the Weimar Republic physicians prior to the Nazi Regime from a socio-economic vantage point. It then takes a look at physical anthropology and its influence on medical practice during the first half of the 20th century through more of an ideological and historical lens. The last portion addresses the actual consequences for the structuring of psychiatric euthanasia and extermination resulting from the "new medical vision" provided by this warped "race science." As a whole, this segment addresses the role of specific research examples and individual doctors and assesses the role of the German state in promoting such science.
Schaefer, N. (2004). "The Legacy of Nazi Medicine " The New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology & Society 5(Spring): 54-60.
Using the U.S Holocaust Memorial Museum's exhibit on German eugenics as a reference point, this article explores the "Eugenic Seduction" at the beginning of the
Holocaust, and the resulting "Corruption of Medicine." Considering the factors that, ultimately, seduced so many doctors and nurses into acting on eugenic theories, and the intricacies that allowed them to, for example, administer lethal doses of Luminol to children because of the slight off-chance that it wouldn't be a lethal dose and the resulting lack of accountability. A final section in the article serves as "A Reminder of Human Evil," discussing the human tendency towards "perfection" and the negative consequences of extremism.
Seidelman, W. E. (1996). JAMA 1933-1939: The Path to Nuremberg. Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto: 17.
"The Journal of the American Medical Association published detailed accounts of the racist transformation of the German health care system under Adolf Hitler. Those reports provide unique insight into contemporary occurrences in the German health care system after Hitler's rise to power. Excerpts from some of these chronicles as published in JAMA between 1933 and 1939 are provided with an accounting of the implications of those reports and the fate of some of the principlas named therein."
Stolberg, S. G. (1998). "Hitting a nerve: Some Jews uncomfortable under the microscope...". Star-Tribune. Minneapolis / St. Paul, MN New York Times.
This short article reports the reactions of prominent Boston Jewish leaders to a proposal of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute to systematically target Jewish women for studies after a study found that the gene for breast cancer is particularly prominent in Ashkenazi women. Individuals commenting include BU Professor Dr. Grodin, Rabbi Moshe David Tendler, and Nancy Kaufman, executive direcotr of the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Boston.
Victor, G. (1996). The Purging of the Blood: From Conventional Eugenics to Surreptitious Sterilization. West Orange, New Jersey: 18.
This paper explains how the process of "surreptitious sterilization" evolved from eugenic tendencies. Detailing the different approaches to and targets of sterilization campaigns, Victor traces the development of secretive sterilization efforts that, after passing a stage in which they were regarded as pseudo-voluntary, ultimately sought to sterilize any person who would not adequately contribute to the promotion of the Aryan race. Generally, Victor also attempts to answer the question of why the sterilization was accompanied by so much secrecy and deception when it was such a well-known fact.
Weikart, R. (2004). Introduction and Conclusion. From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.